1 any of various large keen-sighted diurnal birds of prey noted for their broad wings and strong soaring flight [syn: bird of Jove]
2 (golf) a score of two strokes under par on a hole
3 a former gold coin in the United States worth 10 dollars
4 an emblem representing power; "the Roman eagle" v : shoot in two strokes under par
- Rhymes with: -iːɡəl
- American eagle
- bald eagle
- eagle-eye, eagle-eyed
- eagle owl
- fish eagle
- golden eagle
- Haast’s eagle
- sea eagle
- double eagle
- half eagle
Any of several large carnivorous birds in the family Accipitridae
- Adyghe: бгъэжъ , мэкъухэшъобгъэжъ
- Afrikaans: arend
- Albanian: shqiponja, shkabë
- Ancient Greek: (aetos)
- Arabic: (nasr),
- Armenian: արծիվ (artsiv)
- Avar: цӀум (cʼum)
- Aymara: paca
- Azeri: qartal
- Basque: arrano
- Belarusian: арол
- Bemba: lubambe
- Bezhta: цуⁿгьа (cuⁿha)
- Bosnian: orao
- Breton: erer
- Bulgarian: орел
- Catalan: àliga
- Cebuano: agila
- Chamorro: ágila
- Chechen: аьрзу (ärzu) j
- Cherokee: ᎠᏩᎯᎵ (awahili)
- Cheyenne: netse
- Cornish: er
- Croatian: orao
- Czech: orel
- Danish: ørn
- Dutch: arend, adelaar
- Esperanto: aglo
- Estonian: kotkas
- Ewe: hɔ̃
- Faroese: ørn
- Finnish: kotka
- French: aigle
- Friulian: acuile
- Galician: aguia
- Georgian: არწივი (arts‘ivi)
- German: Adler , Aar (poetic)
- Greek: αετός (aetós)
- Hebrew: עיט (‘ayit)
- Hindi: गरुड (garuḍ), चील (ćīl)
- Hinukh: цой (coj)
- Hungarian: sas
- Hunzib: цу (cu)
- Icelandic: örn
- Indonesian: elang
- Inkhokwari: цеⁿ (ceⁿ)
- Interlingua: aquila
- Inuktitut: ᓇᒃᑐᕋᓕᒃ (nakturalik)
- Irish: iolar
- Italian: aquila
- Japanese: 鷲 (わし, washi)
- Kannada: ಗರುಡ (garuḍa)
- Khvarshi: це (ce)
- Korean: 독수리 (doksuri)
- Ladin: eguia
- Latin: aquila
- Latvian: ērglis
- Lemko: орел
- Lithuanian: aras, erelis
- Lower Sorbian:
- Macedonian: орел
- Maltese: ajkla
- Manx Gaelic: urley
- Middle High German: ar, adelar
- Mongolian: бүргэд
- Nahuatl: cuāuhtli
- Norwegian: ørn
- Occitan: agla
- Old English: earn
- Old High German: ,
- Old Irish:
- Old Prussian:
- Persian: (oghāb)
- Polish: orzeł
- Portuguese: águia
- Potawatomi: kno
- Quechua: anca
- Romani: orla
- Romanian: acvilă
- Romansh: evla
- Russian: орёл
- Sami: goaskin
- Samoan: aeto
- Sanskrit: गरुडः (garuḍaḥ)
- Sardinian: àcuila, altanera, àbbile, àbbila
- Scottish Gaelic: iolair
- Sepedi: ntšhu
- Cyrillic: орао
- Roman: orao
- Cyrillic: орао
- Slovak: orol
- Slovene: orel, orlica
- Spanish: águila
- Swazi: lú-khôzi
- Swedish: örn
- Tagalog: agila, banoy
- Tamil: (en)
- Telugu: గ్రద్ద (gradda)
- Thai: (insee)
- Tibetan: གོ་བོ་ (go.bo)
- Tongan: 'ikale
- Tsez: цей (cey) 3
- Turkish: kartal
- Turkmen: bürgüt
- Ukrainian: орел
- Upper Sorbian:
- Urdu: (uqāb), (ćīl) , (garuḍ)
- Vietnamese: chim đại bàng
- Welsh: eryr
- West Frisian: earn
- Yiddish: אָדלער (odler)
- Zulu: ukhozi, inkwazi
A gold coin with a face value of $10.00
In golf, a score of two under par for a hole
- Danish: eagle
- Finnish: eagle
- To score an eagle.
about the bird Eagles are large birds of prey which mainly inhabit Eurasia and Africa. Outside these two areas, just two species (the Bald and Golden Eagles) can be found in North America - (north of Mexico), a few species in Central and South America, and three others in Australia.
They are members of the bird order Falconiformes (or Accipitriformes, according to alternative classification schemes), family Accipitridae, and belong to several genera which are not necessarily closely related to each other genetically.
Eagles are differentiated from other birds of prey mainly by their larger size, more powerful build, and heavier head and bill. Even the smallest eagles, like the Booted Eagle (which is comparable in size to a Common Buzzard or Red-tailed Hawk), have relatively longer and more evenly broad wings, and more direct, faster flight. Most eagles are larger than any other raptors apart from the vultures.
Like all birds of prey, eagles have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, and powerful talons. They also have extremely keen eyesight to enable them to spot potential prey from a very long distance. This keen eyesight is primarily contributed by their extremely large pupils which cause minimal diffraction (scattering) of the incoming light.
In Britain before 1678, Eagle referred specifically to the Golden Eagle, the other native species, the White-tailed Eagle, being known as the Erne. The modern name "Golden Eagle" for Aquila chrysaetos was introduced by the naturalist John Ray.
Eagles build their nests, called eyries, in tall trees or on high cliffs. Many species lay two eggs, but the older, larger chick frequently kills its younger sibling once it has hatched.
Eagles are sometimes used in falconry. They appear prominently in myth and literature. In the Old World, such references are commonly to the Golden Eagle (or possibly closely related species found in warmer climates).
TaxonomyMajor new research into eagle taxonomy suggests that the important genera Aquila and Hieraaetus are not composed of nearest relatives, and it is likely that a reclassification of these genera will soon take place, with some species being moved to Lophaetus or Ictinaetus.
- Bonelli's Eagle, the Booted Eagle and the Little Eagle have been moved from Hieraaetus to Aquila.
- Either the Greater Spotted Eagle and Lesser Spotted Eagle should move from Aquila to join the Long-crested Eagle in Lophaetus, or, perhaps better, all three of these species should move to Ictinaetus with the Black Eagle.
- The Steppe Eagle and Tawny Eagle, once thought to be conspecific, are not even each other's nearest relatives.
- Subfamily Buteoninae -
hawks (buzzards), true eagles and sea-eagles
- Genus Geranoaetus
- Black-chested Buzzard-eagle, Geranoaetus melanoleucus
- Genus Harpyhaliaetus
- Genus Morphnus
- Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis
- Genus Harpia
- Harpy Eagle, Harpia harpyja
- Genus Pithecophaga
- Philippine Eagle, Pithecophaga jefferyi
- Genus Harpyopsis
- New Guinea Eagle, Harpyopsis novaeguineae
- Genus Oroaetus
- Black-and-chestnut Eagle, Oroaetus isidori
- Genus Spizaetus
- Cassin's Hawk-eagle, Spizaetus africanus
- Changeable Hawk-eagle, S. cirrhatus
- Mountain Hawk-eagle, S. nipalensis
- Blyth's Hawk-eagle, S. alboniger
- Javan Hawk-eagle, S. bartelsi
- Sulawesi Hawk-eagle, S. lanceolatus
- Philippine Hawk-eagle, S. philippensis
- Wallace's Hawk-eagle, S. nanus
- Black Hawk-eagle, S. tyrannus
- Ornate Hawk-eagle, S. ornatus
- Black-and-white Hawk-eagle, S. melanoleucus
- Genus Lophaetus
- Long-crested Eagle, Lophaetus occipitalis - possibly belongs in Ictinaetus
- Genus Stephanoaetus
- Crowned Hawk-eagle, Stephanoaetus coronatus
- Genus Polemaetus
- Martial Eagle, Polemaetus bellicosus
- Genus Hieraaetus
- Genus Harpagornis (extinct)
- Haast's Eagle, Harpagornis moorei - possibly belongs in either Hieraaetus or Aquila
- Genus Aquila
- Bonelli's Eagle, Aquila fasciata - formerly Hieraaetus fasciatus
- Booted Eagle, A. pennata - formerly Hieraaetus pennatus
- Little Eagle, A. morphnoides
- Golden Eagle, A. chrysaetos
- Eastern Imperial Eagle, A. heliaca
- Rufous-bellied Eagle, A. kienerii
- Spanish Imperial Eagle A. adalberti
- Steppe Eagle, A. nipalensis
- Tawny Eagle, A. rapax
- Greater Spotted Eagle, A. clanga - to be moved to Lophaetus or Ictinaetus
- Lesser Spotted Eagle, A. pomarina - to be moved to Lophaetus or Ictinaetus
- Indian Spotted Eagle, A. hastata - to be moved to Lophaetus or Ictinaetus
- Verreaux's Eagle, A. verreauxii
- Gurney's Eagle, A. gurneyi
- Wahlberg's Eagle, A. wahlbergi
- Wedge-tailed Eagle, A. audax
- Genus Ictinaetus
- Black Eagle, Ictinaetus malayensis
- Genus Haliaeetus
- Genus Ichthyophaga
- Genus Geranoaetus
- Subfamily Circaetinae:
- Genus Terathopius
- Bateleur, Terathopius ecaudatus
- Genus Circaetus
- Genus Spilornis
- Genus Eutriorchis
- Madagascar Serpent-eagle, Eutriorchis astur
- Genus Terathopius
Eagles in culture
The wordThe modern English name of the bird is derived from the Latin term aquila by way of the French Aigle. The Latin aquila may derive from the word aquilus, meaning dark-colored, swarthy, or blackish, as a description of the eagle's plumage; or from Aquilo, the Latin version of Greek Boreas, or north wind.
Old English used the term Earn, related to Scandinavia's Ørn / Örn. The etymology of this word is related to Greek ornis, literally meaning "bird". In this sense, the Eagle is the Bird with a capital B.
Eagles as national symbols
Eagles have been used by many nations as a national symbol.
- The coat of arms of Albania has a black double-headed eagle.
- The coat of arms of Armenia has a gold eagle and lion.
- The coat of arms of Austria has a black eagle.
- The coat of arms of the Czech Republic integrates the symbols of Moravia and Silesia (both with female eagles in their emblems - red-and-white chequered and black respectively) on the coat of arms of the Czech Republic with Bohemia's lion.
- The coat of arms of Egypt is a golden eagle looking towards the viewer's left.
- The coat of arms of Germany has a black eagle.
- The coat of arms of Ghana has two golden eagles holding it.
- The coat of arms of Indonesia has an eagle-like garuda carrying a shield on its neck and a banner on its feet.
- The coat of arms of Iraq has the golden Eagle of Saladin
- The coat of arms of Jordan has a black eagle.
- The coat of arms of Mexico golden eagle perched upon a cactus devouring a snake.
- The coat of arms of Moldova consists of a stylized eagle holding a cross in its beak and a sceptre and a branch in its claws.
- The coat of arms of Montenegro represents the two-headed eagle in flight.
- The coat of arms of Nigeria has a red eagle on top.
- The Insignia of the Pakistan Air Force includes the Peregrine Falcon State Military national bird.
- The coat of arms of Panama has a harpy eagle
- The coat of arms of the Philippines has the bald eagle of the United States.
- The coat of arms of Poland has a white eagle with a golden beak and talons wearing a golden crown.
- The coat of arms of Romania has a golden aquila holding a cross in its beak and a mace and a sword in its claws.
- The coat of arms of Russia has a double-headed eagle.
- The coat of arms of Serbia has a white bicephalic eagle of the House of Nemanjić.
- The coat of arms of Syria formerly had the eagle of Saladin.
- The Great Seal of the United States has a bald eagle.
- The coat of arms of Yemen depicts a golden eagle with a scroll between its claws.
- The coat of arms of Nigeria has a red eagle on top.
- Hellenistic Egypt. The Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt used it as their seal.
- First French Empire. Napoleon Bonaparte used the Roman Golden Eagle as the symbol of his new French empire.
- Persian Empire. The symbol of Persian Army was an Eagle
- Rome. The Romans used
it on the standards of
their armies. From this derives:
- The late Byzantine Empire chose a two-headed golden eagle as its symbol. It is popularly that one head symbolised ancient Rome, and the other head symbolised "new Rome" at Constantinople. From this derives:
- Charlemagne and Holy Roman Empire. After his crowning as the
new Roman Emperor, Charlemagne
adopted the ancient Roman
eagle as his own symbol. The Holy Roman Empire born of his
kingdom took the eagle, but the Habsburgs replaced
the golden eagle
by an imperial
eagle. From this derives:
- Austria. The Austrian Empire had a two-headed eagle as its symbol. After the abolition of Austria-Hungary, Austria took as its symbol a one-headed eagle in the modern coat of arms of Austria.
- Germany and Prussia. Prussia, and later Germany have used a black eagle as their national symbol.
- Spain. The "Catholic Kings", Isabella and Ferdinand, used the Golden Eagle as a part of the royal shield. The eagle was on the Spanish shield until 1978.
- The Seljuk Turks and Ottoman Turks used a double-headed eagle as coats-of-arms.
Eagles as religious objects
Eagle lecterns are very common in Christian churches and cathedrals. The eagle is the symbol used to depict John the Apostle, whose writing most clearly witnesses the light and divinity of Christ. In art, John, as the presumed author of the Gospel, is often depicted with an eagle, which symbolizes the height he rose in the first chapter of his gospel. See Names of John.
The eagle is a sacred bird in some cultures and the feathers of the eagle are central to many religious and spiritual customs, especially amongst Native Americans in the United States and First Nations in Canada, as well as among many of the peoples of Meso-America. Some Native American peoples revere eagles as sacred religious objects and the feathers and parts of Bald and Golden Eagles are often compared to the Bible and crucifix. Eagle feathers are often used in various ceremonies and are used to honor noteworthy achievements and qualities such as exceptional leadership and bravery. In the cultures of the Northwest Coast, Eagle is also a supernatural being and also the ancestor and features in the heraldic crests of important clans known as totem poles.
Despite modern and historic Native American practices of giving eagle feathers to non-indigenous people and also members of other tribes who have been deemed worthy, current United States eagle feather law stipulates that only individuals of certifiable Native American ancestry enrolled in a federally recognized tribe are legally authorized to obtain eagle feathers for religious or spiritual use. In Canada, poaching of eagle feathers for the booming U.S. market has sometimes resulted in the arrests of First Nations person for the crime.
Eagles as organizational symbols
- Munro. The image of a Golden Eagle is displayed the coat of arms of one of Scotland's most powerful clans, Munro. Gaelic Rothach.
- Greece. The double-headed eagle is the emblem of the Greek sport clubs AEK (black eagle with open wings on yellow background) and PAOK (black eagle with closed wings on white background, as a symbol of mourning). It is a symbol of the clubs' origins, since both clubs were founded by Greeks who fled to Greece from Constantinople in 1922-23. The eagle itself is derived from the later version of the Roman Eagle, the Byzantine- or East Roman eagle.
- Italy. The Roman eagle is the symbol of the Roman sports club S.S. Lazio.
- Nigeria. The Nigeria Football Association, the nation's football (soccer) governing body, has a green eagle perched on a football as its organisational symbol and logo. The Nigerian national football team is known as the 'Super Eagles', the under-20 youth team as the 'Flying Eagles', and the under-17 national side as the 'Golden Eaglets'. They all have an eagle as their symbol.
- Portugal. Eagle is the symbol of the Portuguese football team Sport Lisboa e Benfica.
- Turkey. Black Eagles is used for the Turkish sports club Beşiktaş J.K..Turkish Seljukian double headed eagle emblem.
- México. Eagle is the mascot form Club America´s football club, since 1981.
- Persian Empire: the symbol of the Persian army was an eagle
eagle in Arabic: عقاب
eagle in Aymara: Paka
eagle in Min Nan: Eng-á
eagle in Bulgarian: Орел
eagle in Catalan: Àguila
eagle in Czech: Orel
eagle in Welsh: Eryr
eagle in Danish: Ørn
eagle in Pennsylvania German: Adler
eagle in German: Adler (Biologie)
eagle in Navajo: Atsá
eagle in Modern Greek (1453-): Αετός
eagle in Spanish: Águila
eagle in Esperanto: Aglo
eagle in Persian: عقاب
eagle in French: Aigle (oiseau)
eagle in Friulian: Acuile
eagle in Galician: Aguia
eagle in Hakka Chinese: Ên-tiâu
eagle in Korean: 독수리류
eagle in Croatian: Orlovi
eagle in Ido: Aglo
eagle in Indonesian: Elang
eagle in Javanese: Elang
eagle in Pampanga: Agila
eagle in Georgian: არწივი
eagle in Swahili (macrolanguage): Tai
eagle in Latin: Aquila
eagle in Lithuanian: Ereliai
eagle in Hungarian: Sas
eagle in Malay (macrolanguage): Burung helangnah:Cuāuhtli
eagle in Dutch: Arend (roofvogel)
eagle in Japanese: 鷲
eagle in Norwegian: Ørner
eagle in Norwegian Nynorsk: Ørn
eagle in Low German: Aadler
eagle in Polish: Orły
eagle in Portuguese: Águia
eagle in Russian: Орлиные
eagle in Albanian: Shqiponja
eagle in Simple English: Eagle
eagle in Church Slavic: Орьлъ
eagle in Serbian: Орао
eagle in Finnish: Kotkat
eagle in Swedish: Örn
eagle in Thai: อินทรี
eagle in Turkish: Kartal (kuş)
eagle in Yiddish: אדלער
eagle in Chinese: 鹰
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